AIM: Write a C++ program to calculate the fare for the passengers travelling in a bus.When a passenger enters the bus, the conductor should ask “ what distance will you travel ? “ On knowing the distance from passenger the conductor mentions the fare to the passenger, according to the following criteria-
- If the passenger is in b/w greater than or 0-10 km then fare is 5/-
- If the distance is b/w 10-20 km then fare is 10/-
- If the distance is b/w 20-30 km then fare is 20/-
- If it is greater than 30 km then calculate fare as ₹ 1.5 per kilometer.
Basic Input / Output in C++
C++ comes with libraries which provide us many ways for performing input and output. In C++ input and output is performed in the form of sequence of bytes or more commonly known as streams.
Input Stream: If the direction of flow of bytes is from device(for example: Keyboard) to the main memory then this process is called input.
Output Stream: If the direction of flow of bytes is opposite, i.e. from main memory to device( display screen ) then this process is called output.
Header files available in C++ for Input – Output operation are:
- iostream: iostream stands for standard input output stream. This header file contains definitions to objects like cin, cout, cerr etc.
- iomanip: iomanip stands for input output manipulators. The methods declared in this files are used for manipulating streams. This file contains definitions of setw, setprecision etc.
- fstream: This header file mainly describes the file srteam. This header file is used to handle the data being read from a file as input or data being written into the file as output.
In C++ articles, these two keywords cout and cin are used very often for taking inputs and printing outputs. These two are the most basic methods of taking input and output in C++. For using cin and cout we must include the header file iostream in our program.
In this article we will mainly discuss about the objects defined in the header file iostreamlike cin and cout.
- Standard output stream (cout): Usually the standard output device is the display screen. cout is the instance of the ostream class. cout is used to produce output on the standard output device which is usually the display screen. The data needed to be displayed on the screen is inserted in the standard output stream (cout) using the insertion operator (<<).
using namespace std;
char sample = “GeeksforGeeks”;
cout<<samle<<” – A computer science portal for geeks”;
As you can see in the above program the insertion operator(<<) insert the value of the string variable sample followed by the string “A computer science portal for geeks” in the standard output stream cout which is then displayed on screen.
standard input stream (cin): Usually the input device is the keyboard. cin is the instance of the class istream and is used to read input from the standard input device which is usually keyboard.
The extraction operator(>>) is used along with the object cin for reading inputs. The extraction operator extracts the data from the object cin which is entered using the keboard.
using namespace std;
cout<<“How much distance will you travel: “;
cout<<“fare is 5/-“;
cout<<“fare is 10/-“;
cout<<“fare is 20/- “;
cout<<“fare is “<<fare;
How much distance will you travel: 53
Fare is: 79.5