POLITICAL SCIENCE :
Political Science is a social science. It deals with citizens in relation with State and Government. It originated in 4th century B.C.
Aristotle is considered as the father of Political Science. The word Politics
is derived from Greek word ‘Polis’ which means City.
Definitions: The definitions of Political Science are classified into traditional and modern
J.W.Garner: “Political Science begins and ends with the State”. Modern definition:
Hillman: “Politics is the science of who gets what, when and why?
- Scope of Political Science:
- Study of Man in relation with Society and State: Political Science studies
about the origin and development of state and society. Aristotle stated that ‘Man
is a social animal’. Man cannot live out the state and society.
- Study of State: Political science studies about the functions State in the past, present and future. It also studies about various activities of the state.
- Study of Government: Political Science studies about the Government its
forms, structure, nature and functions.
- Study of Associations and Institutions: Political Science explains the nature,
structure and functions of voluntary associations as well as formal institutions
like legislature, executive and judiciary.
- Study of Rights and Responsibilities: Political Science studies about the
various rights and duties of the citizens like: right to life, right to property,
obeying laws, paying taxes etc. in detail.
- Study of National and International Issues: Political Science studies about
the national and international politics. As every state depend upon other states
in many spheres.
- Study of Power: Modern political thinkers considered the study of Political
Science as sharing and shaping of power. It also studies about the various
methods of gaining and retaining power.
- Study of Public Policy: Political Science studies about various policies and
programmes of government like education policy, population policy etc.
Conclusion: As the activities of government are increasing with the concept of
welfare state, the scope of Political Science is also ever expanding. Political
science became a dynamic subject.
Nationality refers to the legal status of citizen in a particular state. The
word Nationality is derived from Latin word “Natio” which means birth.
Definition: Garner: “Nationality is a group of population which is united
by racial and other bonds”.
Essential elements of Nationality:
1. Purity of race: Each racial people have their distinctive features like hair
colour, skin colour etc. this brings unity among them.
2. Common Language: People speaking common language can easily form into a
single nation. It leads to psychological unity among the people. However, there
are nations where people speak more than one language. Ex. India.
3. Common religion: Common religion promotes strong bond of unity. It helped in
formation of nationality through common ideas. This concept lost its significance
in the present age, as there are many nations where more than one religious
4. Geographical Unity: People residing in a definite territory develops like-minded
feelings and unity. Geographical unity is essential for the formation of
5. Common History: Common history inspires people and binds them together. It
develops nationalist feelings.
6. Common Culture: Culture means way of life. It reflects common elements like
customs, food habits, religious beliefs etc. People following common culture
easily develop into single nationality.
7. Common Political Aspirations: Common political aspirations helps in
developing unity among the people belonging to different groups. Unity among
the Indians during freedom struggle was due to common political aspirations.
Conclusion: Different elements play important role in promoting the spirit of
nationality in different nations.
CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS :
Rights are the essential conditions of social life. They are safeguarded by the various laws of the state.
Bosanquet: “A right is a claim recognized by the society and enforced by the state”.
Civil Rights: Civil rights are the conditions necessary to lead happy and
honorable life. Constitutions provide these rights to citizens and foreigners. They
are not absolute certain restrictions are imposed. Judiciary protects them.
Following are some of the important civil rights:
1. Right to life: It provides security to the life of individual. The life of an
individual is not only valuable to himself, but also to the society and the state.
2. Right to liberty: It includes various freedoms like freedom of movement,
speech and expression etc.
3. Right to equality: This right implies that all are equal before law. It provides
equal treatment and opportunities to all.
4. Right to property: This right enables individual to earn, share and enjoy
5. Right to religion: This right empowers citizen to practice and promote any
religion of our choice.
6. Right to constitutional remedies: This protects all other rights. People can go
to courts, if their rights are violated either by the individual or by the
Political Rights: Political rights are provided to citizens in democracy. It
enables them to participate in political activities.
1. Right to vote: All the citizens above the age of 18 years can elect their
representative by giving their vote.
2. Right to contest the election: This right enables the citizens to contest in
elections and become people’s representatives.
3. Right to petition: People can give complaint against public officer if he doesn’t
perform his functions properly.
4. Right to criticize: People have the freedom to criticize public polices and
highlight their draw backs.
These are some of the important civil and political rights.
SAFEGUARD OF RIGHTS :
Individuals enjoy their rights only when they are protected and safeguarded by the state. The safeguards of rights are explained below:
1. Democratic Rule: Democracy not only gives rights, but provides various
measures to safeguard them.
2. Written and Rigid Constitution: Written constitution clearly explain the
powers of the government and rights of the individuals. It also specifies the
limitations on government powers. The legislators cannot change the rights
easily, if it is a rigid constitution.
3. Constitutional incorporation: Incorporation of fundamental rights in the
constitution protects them and prevents any encroachment by individuals or
4. Separation of powers: The powers of the three organs of the government shall
be separated. This prevents despotism and promotes individual liberty.
5. Decentralization of powers: Individuals enjoy their rights, when powers are
decentralized among different levels of government. i.e. local, state and central
6. Rule of Law: Rule of law means equality before law. Liberty and rights are
enjoyed only when equality is provided.
7. Independent and Impartial Judiciary: Independent judiciary is one of the
important safeguards of the rights. It protects all rights by issuing writs.
8. Independent Press: Independent press reports the news impartially without
fear. This safeguards the rights of the people.
9. Social and Economic Equalities: Rights cannot be enjoyed in the absence of
10.Eternal Vigilance: Individuals must be vigilant and oppose all sorts of
corruption. Judicial review, strong opposition, recall etc are other safeguards of rights.
MERITS OF DEMOCRACY :
Democracy means people’s government. The term Democracy is derived
from two Greek words ‘demos’ and ‘kratos’ which means people and rule
Abraham Lincoln: “Democracy is the government of the people, by the people
and for the people”
Merits of Democracy :
1. Efficient government: The government is elected by the people. It is
responsible to the people. It makes the government efficient and effective both
in normal times and emergencies.
2. Upholds individual’s liberties: Democracy not only provides freedom and
rights but also various constitutional safeguards to protect them.
3. Assures equality: Democracy assures equality. There shall be no
discrimination. Socio, economic and political rights are provided to all equally.
4. Training school for citizenship: Democracy gives political education to people.
People elect, participate and support government activities. It enhances dignity,
confidence patriotism among people.
5. Ensures stability: People can change the government peacefully without
revolution. This ensures peace, progress and stability.
CONDITIONS REQUIRED FOR THE SUCCESSFUL FUNCTIONING OF DEMOCRACY:
Democracy is rule by the people. It requires the following conditions for its
1. Sound system of education: Education makes citizens vigilant. It enables
them to understand government policies.
2. Independent press: Independent press gives true picture of government
activities. It helps them to formulate proper public opinion.
3. Strong opposition: Strong opposition plays an important role in the success
of democracy. It highlights the drawbacks of the government and suggest
various measures to overcome the problems.
4. Decentralisation of powers: Decentralisation of powers from national level
to local level is essential for the success of democracy.
5. Good leadership: Efficient and committed leaders are essential for the
success of democracy.
6. Absence of militarism: Democracy shall be free from concentration of
authority and despotism. Adequate opportunities shall be provided to people
based on ability.
7. Faith in democracy: Democratic values like tolerance, solving the problems
through discussions etc… shall be inculcated among the people.
ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF THE STATE :
Government and Sovereignty are the two essential elements of the state. They
are explained below:
Government: It is an agency through which State exercises the supreme power. It
makes the laws and governs the people. It has three organs, namely, legislative,
executive and judiciary. Governments are of different types like Parliamentary
government, Presidential government, federal , unitary government etc.
Sovereignty: It is the supreme power of the state. It differentiates state from other
associations. State alone has sovereign power. It enables the government to rule
and make laws within the state. Sovereignty makes the state internally supreme and
Is INDIA A NATION STATE ? :
The people living in India are called Indians. Indians have many common
factors that unite them. India became a Nation State, when it got independence in
1947 from britishers. India is one nation with sovereign power.
The following points explains that India is a nation state:
Indians have common history and culture.
People extended complete support to the government during war with Pakistan and
People in India identify them as Indians first and their regional identities come later.
Though there are various religions, cultures, languages etc in India, all Indians
consider themselves as children of “Mother India”.
National symbols and festivals unite Indians in achieving common goals.
As there are different groups of people living in India, critics say that India is a multi-
Unity in diversity shown by Indians reflects that India is a Nation State.
THREE SOURCES OF LAWS :
Laws are the rules and regulations made by the state to control the external
behaviour of the citizens. There are different sources of law explained below:
Customs: Customs are regarded as the earliest source of law. In ancient period
disputes between individuals were settled in accordance with the prevailing social
Religion: In the ancient period religion dominated the State. States were governed
on the basis of divine laws. God is the ultimate source of divine law. In the present
society also theocratic states like Pakistan, Iran etc, follow religious laws as
Equity: The term “Equity” stands for the principles of fairness and justice. When the
existing laws are inadequate, judges use their common sense and fair understanding
to deliver justice. It is viewed as judge made laws.
Liberty is the essential condition for the development of the man. Liberty means
freedom. The word Liberty is derived from the Latin word “Liber” which means free
Following are the safeguards of Liberty:
Democratic Rule: Liberty flourishes only in a democratic state. It creates an
atmosphere in which people can enjoy liberty freely and impartially.
Written and Rigid Constitution: It clearly mentions the rights, liberties and
freedoms of the people. It also gives various measures to protect them. Political
parties cannot amend it with their partisan interest.
Independent Judiciary: Independent Judiciary protects the fundamental rights of
the people. It delivers justice to people on fair, free and impartial manner.
VARIOUS QUANTITIES OF GOOD CITIZEN :
According to Aristotle good citizens make good state. Because they have good
qualities. They are explained below:
Good character: Good character is essential for a good citizen. He or she shall be
just, kindhearted, courageous, patriotic etc.
Sound Health: Healthy citizen helps in faster development of the state.
Intelligence and Education: Intelligent and educated citizens have proper
awareness of rights and responsibilities and understand the socio- political problems
better. This enables them to play a proper role.
Self control: Self control makes him lead a disciplined life and prevent inhuman
Public spirit: A good citizen actively participate in public activities and offers his
services for the collective welfare of the society.
Self sacrifice: A good citizen sacrifices his interest for the interest of community.
NATURALIZED CITIZENSHIP ACQUIRED :
A citizen of one state can obtain citizenship of other states after fulfilling certain
conditions. That is called naturalized citizenship. The conditions differ from state to
state. They are explained below:
Residence: An alien who resides in a state for a particular period automatically
becomes the citizen.
Choice: The children of alien parents could obtain citizenship by choice (according
to the principle of place of birth).
Marriage: An alien woman acquires citizenship of a state when she marries the
citizen of that state.
Application: Citizen of one state can apply for the citizenship of other country.
Fixed Assets: An alien who buys some portion of land or acquires some fixed
property can acquire citizenship in a state.
Service: An alien who serves in government or private firm could become the citizen
of that state.
The alien who receives the citizenship of new state, will have to forgo his native
DIRECT DEMOCRATIC DEVICES :
In Direct democracy people directly participate in the legislative process
through four devices. They are explained below:
Referandum : Referandum is a device through which people’s approval is taken to
the bills passed by the legislature. It is of two types i.e. compulsory incase of
constitutional law and optional incase of ordinary law.
Initiative: This device empowers people to propose new laws. It is of two types i.e.
formulative initiative and unformulative initiative.
Recall: Recall allows the voters to call back any elected officer or representative
when he fails to carry out his obligations properly. This makes representative more
responsible and prevents corruption.
Plebiscite: Plebiscite is conducted to know the opinion of the people on matters of
national importance. The decisions expressed by people are final and no alteration
can be made upon them.
FEATURES OF DEMOCRACY :
The features of democracy may be explained as follows:
Popular government: Democracy is basically a government by the people. In
democracy people act as the rulers and the ruled. Both the voters and their representatives play a decisive role in public affairs.
Popular control: In democracy, citizens will have control over the political affairs.
Citizens regulate the affairs of government by expressing their opinion on various
policies and programmes of the latter. They support the wise, honest and welfare
Individual’s dignity: In democracy individual’s dignities are honoured by the
government. Even the ordinary person living in distant and remote places are given
various opportunities to express their opinions.
Elections: Democracy and elections are closely related. Democracy gives scope for
holding elections at regular intervals as per constitutional norms.
Public accountability: Democracy is characterized by public accountability. The
various governments functioning in democracy owe accountability immediately to the
legislators and ultimately to the voters at large.
MERITS OF SECULARISM :
Following are the merits of Secularism:
Equality: There will be no man made inequalities based on religion, caste etc. in a
secular state. This creates a society based on equality.
Religious freedom: Secular state gives total religious freedom to citizens. It will not
interfere in the religious matters. People are given freedom to practice and promote
any religion of their choice.
Law and order: Secularism promotes religious harmony among the people. This
reduces communal clashes and promotes law and order.
Rule of law: Secular state does not make law on the basis of any particular religion.
Same laws are applicable to all. Thus, it establishes rule of law or equality before
Constitution is the supreme law of the land. It specifies power of the
government and rights and duties of the citizen.
Definition: According to K.C. Wheare “Constitution is that body of rules which
regulate the ends for which governmental power is exercised”.
Preamble: Every constitution will have a preamble. The preamble denotes the aims
and aspirations of the constitution.
Clarity: All the provisions of the constitution are clearly explained. It is written in
simple and clear language.
Incorporation of Fundamental rights: Every constitution includes some
fundamental rights. They provide various freedoms to citizens.
Brevity: Constitutions are precise and brief. Unnecessary elements are not included
in the constitution.
Flexibility: Constitution must be flexible. That means, it should be easy to change
as per the changing needs of the people.
Permanence: Permanence is one important feature of Constitution. The Constitution
must have everlasting values for the welfare of the people.
FEATURESOF UNITARY GOVERNMENT :
Single government holds all the executive powers in an Unitary government.
The features of unitary government are explained below :
Single and supreme central government: There will be only one government in
unitary form. It exercises all the legislative, executive and judicial powers.
Provincial government: Provincial government or regional government may or may
not exist. Even if regional governments exist, they are not independent. They derive
their powers from the central government.
Flexible constitution: Unitary governments, generally have flexible constitutions. It
may or may not have written constitution.
Single citizenship: Unitary government confers single citizenship to its citizens.
This promotes unity.
Single legislature: Single legislature at the centre makes laws for the entire country.
There will be uniformity in laws.
FEATURES OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT :
Federal government means having two types of governments i.e. union
government and state government. Features of federal government are explained
Written Constitution: Constitution is supreme in a federation. It clearly gives the
division of powers between central and state governments. So, it is necessary to
have written constitution in a federation.
Dual citizenship: Citizens will have membership of both centre and state
simultaneously. They possess dual citizenship.
Division of powers: The administrative powers are divided between the centre and
the states by the constitution.
Bicameralism: Federation will have bicameral legislature at the central level. Lower
house represents the people where as upper house represents the states.
Rigidity: Neither the central government nor the state government shall amend
constitution independently. So, it is essential to have rigid constitution in a federation.
Independent Judiciary: Independent judiciary settles the disputes between centre
and the states.
- Define Liberty. Describe three types of liberty.
Ans. Liberty is an essential condition for the development of man. Liberty means
freedom. The word Liberty is derived from the Latin word ‘Liber’ which means free
J.R.Seeley: “Liberty is the opposite of government”.
Types of Liberty:
1. Natural Liberty: This type of liberty was enjoyed by early men in the state of
2. Civil Liberty: Natural liberty is replaced by civil liberty in present society. Civil
liberty means freedom enjoyed by the men in their day to day life. It is also known as
3. Economic Liberty: Economic liberty means right to earn livelihood. It ensures
freedom from hunger, unemployment etc. Political liberty becomes meaningless
without economic liberty.
- What is Equality? Explain three types of equality.
- Ans. Equality means giving equal opportunities and equal treatment in the society.
The main motto of democracy is to provide equality.
Types of Equality
1. Natural equality: Greek and Roman political thinkers held that all men were equal according to law of nature. However, it is a fact that men are not equal by nature.
They do not have equal capabilities. Natural inequalities can be tolerated when man-
made inequalities are eliminated.
2. Social equality: Social equality means equality of status in the society. There
shall be no discrimination in the society on the basis of caste, religion, gender etc.
Social equality provides equal rights to all. It can be achieved through a positive
change in the society.
3. Economic equality: Economic equality is considered as the basis of social and
political equality. Economic equality means reducing the gap between the rich and
the poor. Equal opportunities to earn livelihood shall be provided.
- What are the merits and demerits of written constitution?
Ans. A written constitution is prepared by a special group of people called
constituent assembly. Written constitution contains all the provisions in a single
Example: India, America
1. A written constitution is simple and clear, no scope for confusion
2. It protects the fundamental rights of the people.
3. It is suitable for federation
4. It puts limitations on the powers of the Government.
1. It’s rigid nature is not helpful to the development of the state.
2. It cannot be changed according to the needs of the people.
3. Judiciary has predominant position.
4. It gives scope for conflicts among the organs of government.
- Explain the merits and demerits of unwritten constitution.
Ans. The provision of unwritten constitution are not given in a single document. It is
the oldest form of constitution.
1. Unwritten constitution is development oriented.
2. It can be changed according to the needs of the people.
3. It gives no scope for revolutions.
1. Frequent changes leads to unstability.
2. Not suitable for federations.
3. It fails to protect the fundamental rights of the people.
4. Not suitable for democracy.
- Explain the merits and demerits of a Rigid Constitution.
Ans. A constitution which cannot be changed easily is rigid constitution. It has a
special procedure to change the constitution. It is a stable constitution.
1. Rigid constitution ensures political stability.
2. It is a product of political experience.
3. It avoids hasty legislations.
4. It protects the fundamental rights of the people.
5. It is suitable for federations.
1. It cannot be changed according to the needs of the people.
2. It affects the progress of the nation.
3. It is not suitable to handle emergencies.
4. It leads to revolutions.
- Write briefly about Representative Democracy.
Ans: Representative Democracy is also known as indirect democracy. In this type of
democracy, people do not directly take part in the law making process.
Representatives formulate laws. Hence, it is known as representative democracy.
They make laws according to the public opinion.
This is the most popular form of government in the present society.
Example:- USA, India, England, etc
It is classified into two types.
1) Parlimentary government
2) Presidential government.
Parlimentarly government consist of two types of executives i.e. nominal and real.
President is the nominal executive where as prime minister is the real executive. In
presidential form of government there exist only one executive i.e. President.
It provides various rights and freedom to the people.
- Write about two methods of acquiring natural citizenship.
Ans. Natural Citizenship: Natural citizenship is one which is acquired by the
persons without specific application or request to the authorities. Citizenship
acquired by birth is natural citizenship. It has three elements. They are:
a). Jus Sanguinis or Kinship or Blood Relationship: According to Jus Sanguinis
a child acquires the citizenship of the parents irrespective of its place of birth. It is
considered as natural or logical.
b). Jus Soli or Place of Birth: According to this method, citizenship is determined
by place of birth and not by parentage.
c). Mixed principle : Under this method, citizenship is granted by following of the two principles of Jus Sanguinis and Jus Soli. Child gets the citizenship of the parents and the state in which he/she was born. Child is given option to choose one of its citizenship after becoming a major.
- How citizenship is lost?
Ans. Citizens lose their citizenship under the following conditions:
1) Renunciation: A person is deprived of his citizenship, if he wishes to become the
citizen of another country.
2) Marriage: Generally, a woman loses her citizenship when she marries an alien.
3) Accepting Foreign Service: A person may lose his citizenship when he enters
into the service of another state.
4) Prolonged Absence: Prolonged absence in the native state beyond a certain
period may lead to the loss of citizenship.
5) Treason or Crime: If citizenship involvement in anti-social, anti-state activities is proved, he loses citizenship.
Obliging foreign titles, desertion from army etc are other causes for the loss of