Health :is one of the primary concerns of all the governments of the world. they strive to take steps individually at the nation level as well as collectively at the global level to safe guard the health interests of theirpeople.
common health problems in INDIA :INDIA is a vast country. it has highly diverse geographical and climatic conditions.it’s population is distributed in broadly five types of habitations :
1.big cities : these have multi-storeyed buildings, too many vehicles, heavily burdened water supply and sewage systems, some with lots of industries, either inside the township or outside
2.small cities :not so crowded.
3.villages :small population, agriculture based; dairies, poultry farming, cottage industries, etc.are the main sources of livelihood.
4.remote areas :tribal people, mostly thriving on forests and forest products; neither proper drinking water nor any medical facility is available.
5.slum -dwellings:slums and jhuggi -jhompris are a common sight at all places specially on the outskirts of big cities. Unhealthy, unhygienic conditions prevail in them.
HEALTH PROBLEMS :the health problems differ in each kind of habitation. However, we may generalise them as follows :
(A)FOOD AND WATER BRONE DISEASES:several diseases specially diarrhoea, gastroenteritis, typhoid,dysentery,are very common in areas deficient in proper water supply. At many places,water from hand -pumps cause health problems.
Untreated sewage or effluents from industries poured into rivers and other water bodies harm the people living alongside.
(B) Insect and air-brone diseases :the public in general, and specially the uneducated village folk,are not conscious of the flies which alight on exposed food stuff and contaminate them.
Lack of general cleanliness leads to breeding of houseflies,mosquitoes,and other insects which cause diseases.
International bodies: two most important international bodies concerned with people’s health are:
1.red cross 2.who (world health organisation )
Red cross:the red cross is a national as well as an international agency. The main function of red cross society is to perform activities which should prevent or remove human sufferings in peace time as well at the time of war.it was formally founded in 1864.the emblem of the red cross society is a red coloured cross painted on a white background.
People belonging to the red cross can go to battle fields and take care of the wounded soldiers whether friends or enemies. Major activities of red cross societies are as follows :
1.to extend relief and help to the victims of any calamity -flood,fire,famine,earthquakes, etc.
2.to produce and supply blood for the needy victims of war or other calamities.
3.to extend all possible first-aid in any accident.
4.to educate people in accident prevention.
5.to arrange for ambulance service in all emergencits.
6.to look after maternal and child welfare centres.
7.the Indian red cross society has also been engaged in training midwives.
Red cross day -8th may
wrong use of red cross –the red cross emblem is very often used by hospitals, ambulances, doctors and nurses for quick identificationbut legally, it was wrong. Only the red cross society units can use it.
WHO (world health organisation ): the WHO is established in 1948,is a specialised agency of the United nations organisation (UNO).
Reasons for the formation of WHO:member countries of the UNO focused on the need for creating an international body to look after the health problems of people of the world. This was particularly felt in the field of reaserch on the causes and cures of the diseases. The combined efforts in this poor and developing countries were to benefit quickly.
WHO has six regional offices in the world including one in Delhi. Each regional office works for its member countries.it’s head quarters are located in Geneva. Member states of who are bound by the international sanitary regulations to send in all relevant sanitary regulations to send in all relevant information about the internationally notifiable diseases. Malaria and small-pox are two such notifiable diseases.
Main activities of WHO are as follows :
1.to collect and supply information about the occurance of diseases of epidemic nature (such as cholera, plague,typhoid, yellow fever,small pox,etc).
2.to promote and support projects for research on diseases.
3.to supply information on latest developments about the use of vaccines, cancer reaserch, nutritional discoveries, control of drug addiction and about health hazards of nuclear radiation.
4.to suggest quarantine measures (isolation of patient)to prevent spread of disease to others.
5.to lay pharmaceutical standards for important drugs,to ensure purity and size of the dose.
6.to organise campings for the control of epidemic (widespread)and endemic (local)diseases. (One example for an endemic disease is the simple goitre due to iodine deficiency).